In this first-of-its-kind conversation, leading academics and practitioners reflect on the nature and size of the theory-practice divide. They find the gap varies by issue area and over time. The essays in this volume use data gathered by TRIP over a fifteen-year period. As a whole, the volume analyzes the structural factors that affect the academy’s ability to influence policy and the professional incentives that affect scholars’ willingness to attempt to do so. Individual chapters explore these questions in the areas of trade, finance, human rights, development, environment, nuclear strategy, interstate war, and intrastate conflict. Each chapter is followed by a response from a policy practitioner, providing their perspective on the gap and the possibility for academic work to have an impact.